konsult-med

Czujnik zapalenia bakteryjnego reguluje  sygnalizację 

Czujnik zapalenia bakteryjnego reguluje  sygnalizację c-di- GMP , adhezję i tworzenie się biofilmu

Bakterie, które kolonizują zwierzęta, muszą przezwyciężyć lub współistnieć z reaktywnymi formami tlenu, produktami zapalenia, pierwszą linią obrony odporności wrodzonej. Wśród nich jest neutrofilowy wybielacz utleniający, kwas podchlorawy (HOCl), silny środek przeciwdrobnoustrojowy, który odgrywa główną rolę w zabijaniu bakterii poprzez niespecyficzne utlenianie białek, lipidów i DNA.

W tym miejscu donosimy, że w odpowiedzi na rosnące poziomy HOCl Escherichia coli reguluje produkcję biofilmu poprzez aktywację cyklazy diguanylanowej DgcZ. Identyfikujemy mechanizm wykrywania DgcZ HOCl jako bezpośrednie utlenianie jego domeny regulacyjnego chemoreceptora wiążącego cynk (CZB) . Analiza transdukcji sygnału CZB ujawnia, że ​​utlenianie konserwowanej cysteiny wiążącej cynk kontroluje zajęcie CZB Zn2 +  , co z kolei reguluje katalizę c-di-GMP przez powiązaną domenę GGDEF. Odkryliśmy, że tworzenie biofilmu zależnego od DgcZ i wykrywanie HOCl jest regulowane  in vivo  przez konserwowaną cysteinę koordynującą cynk.

Dodatkowo mutanty punktowe, które naśladują stany utlenienia CZB, zwiększają całkowity biofilm. Przegląd genomów bakteryjnych ujawnia, że ​​wiele bakterii chorobotwórczych, które manipulują stanem zapalnym gospodarza w ramach swojej strategii kolonizacji, posiada regulowane przez CZB cyklazy diguanylanowe i chemoreceptory. Nasze odkrycia sugerują, że domeny CZB są regulatorami wrażliwymi na cynk, które umożliwiają bakteriom związanym z gospodarzem postrzeganie stanu zapalnego gospodarza poprzez reaktywność z HOCl.

ZNACZENIE  Komórki odpornościowe są dobrze przygotowane do eliminowania atakujących bakterii, a jednym z ich podstawowych narzędzi jest synteza wybielacza, kwasu podchlorawego (HOCl), tej samej substancji chemicznej, która jest używana jako środek dezynfekujący w gospodarstwie domowym. W tej pracy przedstawiamy odkrycia pokazujące, że wiele bakterii związanych z gospodarzem posiada białko wyczuwające wybielacz, które pozwala im przystosować się do obecności tej substancji chemicznej w swoim środowisku. Odkryliśmy, że bakteria Escherichia coli reaguje na wybielanie, chowając się i wytwarzając lepką macierz znaną jako biofilm, która pomaga jej agregować i przylegać do powierzchni. To zachowanie może odgrywać ważną rolę w patogenności E. coli i innych bakterii, ponieważ umożliwia bakteriom wykrywanie i adaptację do broni układu odpornościowego gospodarza.

konsult-med
konsult-med

 Izolacja komórek nabłonka śluzówki i fibroblastów zgodna z GMP z próbek biopsyjnych do klinicznej inżynierii tkankowej

Zaprojektowane arkusze komórek nabłonkowych do klinicznego zastąpienia niefunkcjonalnej błony śluzowej górnego odcinka przewodu pokarmowego są regulowane jako produkty lecznicze i powinny być wytwarzane zgodnie ze standardami dobrej praktyki wytwarzania (GMP). Obecny złoty regular wzrostu komórek nabłonkowych do badań wykorzystuje warstwy podtrzymujące 3T3 J2 myszy z zatrzymanym wzrostem, które nie są dostępne do stosowania jako surowiec zgodny z GMP.

Wykorzystując świńską tkankę śluzową, prezentujemy nową metodę uzyskiwania i hodowania niezrogowaciałych komórek nabłonka płaskiego i komórek fibroblastów z pojedynczej biopsji , zastępując 3T3 J2 pierwotną warstwą odżywczą dla fibroblastów z zatrzymanym wzrostem i używając połączonego lizatu ludzkich płytek krwi (HPL) jako dodatek surowicy pożywki w celu zastąpienia płodowej surowicy bydlęcej (FBS).

Początkową izolację komórek przeprowadzono półautomatycznie przy użyciu Octodissociator i kriokonserwację powstałej zawiesiny komórek do wykorzystania w przyszłości. W porównaniu ze złotym standardem pożywki zawierającej 3T3 J2 i FBS nie stwierdzono zmniejszenia wzrostu, żywotności, populacji komórek macierzystych ani zdolności do różnicowania się do dojrzałych komórek nabłonkowych. Co więcej, metoda ta została zreplikowana z ludzką tkanką policzkową, zapewniając komórki o jakości i liczbie wystarczającej do stworzenia arkusza inżynierii tkankowej.

Struktura krystaliczna o wysokiej rozdzielczości białka Borreliella burgdorferi PlzA w kompleksie z c-di- GMP : nowe spojrzenie na interakcję c-di- GMP  z nową domeną xPilZ

W patogenach przenoszonych przez kleszcze, Borreliella burgdorferi i Borrelia hermsii, c-di-GMP jest wytwarzany przez pojedynczą cyklazę diguanylanową (Rrp1). W tych patogenach białka Plz (PlzA, B i C) są jedynymi zidentyfikowanymi dotychczas receptorami c-di-GMP, a PlzA jest jedynym receptorem c-di-GMP występującym we wszystkich izolatach Borreliella. Analizy bioinformatyczne sugerują, że PlzA ma unikalną architekturę PilZN3-PilZ ze stosunkowo rzadko spotykaną domeną xPilZ.

Tutaj przedstawiamy strukturę krystaliczną PlzA w kompleksie z c-di-GMP (rozdzielczość 1,6 Å). Jest to pierwsza do określenia struktura domeny xPilz w kompleksie z c-di-GMP. PlzA ma strukturę dwudomenową, gdzie każda domena zawiera topologicznie równoważne domeny PilZ o minimalnej identyczności sekwencji, ale niezwykłym podobieństwie strukturalnym. Miejsce wiązania c-di-GMP jest tworzone przez linker łączący dwie domeny. Chociaż nie można było określić struktury apo PlzA, wcześniejsze dane dotyczące transferu energii rezonansu fluorescencji sugerują, że formy apo i holo białka są strukturalnie różne. Informacje uzyskane w ramach tego badania ułatwią trwające prace nad identyfikacją molekularnych mechanizmów regulacji, w której pośredniczy PlzA, u kleszczy i ssaków.

 

Białka związane z zarodnikami uczestniczące w  syntezie i degradacji  c-di- GMP Bacillus anthracis

  • Bis-(3′-5′)-cykliczny-dimeryczny monofosforan guanozyny (c-di-GMP) jest ważną cząsteczką regulacyjną dla bakterii wpływającą na tworzenie biofilmu, wytwarzanie toksyn, ruchliwość i zjadliwość. Przewiduje się, że genom  Bacillus anthracis , czynnika sprawczego wąglika, koduje dziesięć przypuszczalnych białek zawierających domenę GGDEF/EAL/HD-GYP. Heterologiczna ekspresja u  gospodarzy Bacillus subtilis wskazuje, że istnieje pięć aktywnych białek zawierających domenę GGDEF i cztery aktywne białka zawierające domenę EAL lub HD-GYP.
  • Stosując podejście Western blotting z fuzją genów mCherry, obserwowano ekspresję białek związanych z c-di-GMP przez cały  cykl życiowy in vitro . Spośród sześciu białek związanych z c-di-GMP, które są obecne w komórkach zarodnikujących, cztery (CdgA, CdgB, CdgD i CdgG) zawierają aktywne domeny GGDEF.
  • Sześć białek wyrażanych w komórkach zarodnikujących jest zatrzymywanych w zarodnikach w sposób niezależny od CotE, a zatem prawdopodobnie nie będą zlokalizowane w warstwie egzosporium zarodników. Poszczególne mutanty delecyjne obejmujące dziewięć genów kodujących białko GGDEF/EAL i jeden gen kodujący białko HD-GYP nie wpływały na wydajność sporulacji, przyłączanie glikoproteiny BclA egzosporium ani na wytwarzanie biofilmu.
  • Warto zauważyć, że delecja żadnej z determinant cdg kodujących białka z aktywnymi domenami GGDEF nie wpływała na ekspresję toksyny wąglika,  która wpływała na kinetykę kiełkowania. Badanie to ujawnia asocjację zarodników cyklicznych białek regulatorowych di-GMP i prawdopodobną rolę tych białek w biologii  B.

WAŻNE  Rodzaj  Bacillus  składa się z Gram-dodatnich bakterii o kształcie pałeczek i żyjących w glebie. Jako mechanizm przetrwania w trudnych warunkach glebowych, organizmy przechodzą zarodnikowanie, a powstałe zarodniki pozwalają organizmom przetrwać trudne warunki środowiskowe. Chociaż większość gatunków to saprofity,  B. cereus  i  B. anthracis  są patogenami człowieka, a  B. thuringiensis  jest patogenem owadów. Bakteryjny system regulacji c-di-GMP jest ważnym systemem kontrolnym wpływającym na ruchliwość, tworzenie biofilmu i produkcję toksyn.

Leki cykliczne  modulujące GMP w chorobach układu krążenia: Farmakologia sieciowa oparta na mechanizmach

Terapia oparta na mechanizmach, skoncentrowana na molekularnym zrozumieniu szlaków chorobowych u danego pacjenta, jest nadal raczej wyjątkiem niż regułą w medycynie, nawet w kardiologii. Jednak ostatnie udane opracowania leków skoncentrowane wokół drugiego przekaźnika cyklicznego guanozyno-3′-5′-monofosforanu (cGMP), który reguluje szereg szlaków modulujących choroby sercowo-naczyniowe, mają dostarczyć nowych celów dla takiej spersonalizowanej terapii sercowo-naczyniowej.

Niezależnie od tego, czy rozkład cGMP jest hamowany, czy synteza cGMP jest stymulowana przez cyklazy guanylowe lub ich regulatory w różnych fenotypach chorób sercowo-naczyniowych, wyniki wydają się jak dotąd jednakowo ochronne. Tak więc rozwinęła się sieć leków modulujących cGMP, które działają w sposób oparty na mechanizmie, prawdopodobnie przyczynowy w wielu stanach serca. Wyzwaniem pozostaje wykrycie endotypów cGMPopatii wśród fenotypów chorób sercowo-naczyniowych. W tym miejscu dokonujemy przeglądu rosnącego znaczenia klinicznego cGMP i przedstawiamy wgląd w przyszłość, w jaki sposób leki ingerujące w ten szlak mogą zmienić sposób, w jaki leczymy i diagnozujemy choroby sercowo-naczyniowe.

Anti-human CD5 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC00480-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD5 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD45 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC00555-Biotin 100µg
EUR 152
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD45 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD2 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC00570-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD2 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD71 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC00591-Biotin 100µg
EUR 245
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD71 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD62L Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC00652-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD62L Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD59 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC00914-Biotin 100µg
EUR 265
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD59 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD117 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC01335-Biotin 100μg
EUR 224
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD117 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD32 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC01450-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD32 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD90 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC01818-Biotin 100µg
EUR 268
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD90 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD7 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC01974-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD7 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD235a Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC02184-Biotin 100µg
EUR 245
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD235a Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD8 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC02236-Biotin 100µg
EUR 152
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD8 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-Human VEGI Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC02402-Biotin Various Sizes
EUR 497
Description: Mouse Monoclonal Human VEGI Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in WB and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD3 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC02675-Biotin 100µg
EUR 152
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD3 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD20 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC03780-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD20 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD10 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC04065-Biotin 100µg
EUR 189
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD10 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD57 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC09548-Biotin 100µg
EUR 245
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD57 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human HLA-DR Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC00568-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human HLA-DR Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD55/Daf Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC00910-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD55/Daf Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD33/Siglec 3 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC01508-Biotin 100µg
EUR 234
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD33/Siglec 3 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Anti-human CD22/Siglec 2 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC01572-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal human CD22/Siglec 2 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) ELISA Kit

DLR-cGMP-Ge-48T 48T
EUR 568
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) ELISA Kit

DLR-cGMP-Ge-96T 96T
EUR 744
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

General Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) ELISA Kit

RD-cGMP-Ge-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 579

General Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) ELISA Kit

RD-cGMP-Ge-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 806

General Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) ELISA Kit

RDR-cGMP-Ge-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 605

General Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) ELISA Kit

RDR-cGMP-Ge-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 843

Biotin-cGMP, diisopropylethylammonium salt:

00021 1MG
EUR 344
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1MG

Mouse anti-human CD7 Monoclonal Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated

FC01974-1-Biotin 100µg
EUR 233
Description: Mouse Monoclonal Mouse human CD7 Antibody Biotin Conjugated, Flow Validated. Validated in Flow Cytometry and tested in Human.

CX3CR1 Antibody (biotin)

2093-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 171.82
Description: CX3CR1 Antibody: CX3CR1 is one of the chemokine receptors that are required as coreceptors for HIV infection. The genes encoding human, murine, and rat CX3CR1 were cloned and designated V28 and CMKBRL1, CX3CR1, and RBS11, respectively. The encoded seven transmembrane protein was recently identified as the receptor for a novel transmembrane molecule, fractalkine, and renamed CX3CR1. Recently, CX3CR1 was found to serve as a coreceptor for HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope fusion and virus infection, which can be inhibited by fractokine. CX3CR1 mediates leukocyte migration and adhesion. CX3CR1 is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cell lines.

CX3CR1 Antibody (biotin)

2093-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 436.42
Description: CX3CR1 Antibody: CX3CR1 is one of the chemokine receptors that are required as coreceptors for HIV infection. The genes encoding human, murine, and rat CX3CR1 were cloned and designated V28 and CMKBRL1, CX3CR1, and RBS11, respectively. The encoded seven transmembrane protein was recently identified as the receptor for a novel transmembrane molecule, fractalkine, and renamed CX3CR1. Recently, CX3CR1 was found to serve as a coreceptor for HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope fusion and virus infection, which can be inhibited by fractokine. CX3CR1 mediates leukocyte migration and adhesion. CX3CR1 is expressed in a variety of human tissues and cell lines.

ACE2 Antibody (biotin)

3217-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: ACE2 Antibody: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a central role in vascular, renal, and myocardial physiology. In contrast to its homolog ACE, ACE2 expression is restricted to heart, kidney, and testis. Recently. ACE2 has also been shown to be a functional receptor of the SARS coronavirus. Homology modeling shows 2019-nCoV has a similar receptor-binding domain structure as SARS-CoV, which suggests COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) may use ACE2 as a receptor in humans for infection. The normal function of ACE2 is to convert the inactive vasoconstrictor angiotensin I (AngI) to Ang1-9 and the active form AngII to Ang1-7, unlike ACE, which converts AngI to AngII. While the role of these vasoactive peptides is not well understood, lack of ACE2 expression in ace2-/ace2- mice leads to severely reduced cardiac contractility, indicating its importance in regulating heart function.

ACE2 Antibody (biotin)

3217-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: ACE2 Antibody: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a central role in vascular, renal, and myocardial physiology. In contrast to its homolog ACE, ACE2 expression is restricted to heart, kidney, and testis. Recently. ACE2 has also been shown to be a functional receptor of the SARS coronavirus. Homology modeling shows 2019-nCoV has a similar receptor-binding domain structure as SARS-CoV, which suggests COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) may use ACE2 as a receptor in humans for infection. The normal function of ACE2 is to convert the inactive vasoconstrictor angiotensin I (AngI) to Ang1-9 and the active form AngII to Ang1-7, unlike ACE, which converts AngI to AngII. While the role of these vasoactive peptides is not well understood, lack of ACE2 expression in ace2-/ace2- mice leads to severely reduced cardiac contractility, indicating its importance in regulating heart function.

Biotin-cGMP, diisopropylethylammonium salt: (20x50ug)

00021-1 20ST
EUR 448
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 20ST

PD1 Antibody [7H6] (biotin)

RF16003-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Cell-mediated immune responses are initiated by T lymphocytes that are themselves stimulated by cognate peptides bound to MHC molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC). T-cell activation is generally self-limited as activated T cells express receptors such as PD-1 (also known as PDCD-1) that mediate inhibitory signals from the APC. PD-1 can bind two different but related ligands, PDL-1 and PDL-2. Upon binding to either of these ligands, signals generated by PD-1 inhibit the activation of the immune response in the absence of "danger signals" such as LPS or other molecules associated with bacteria or other pathogens. Evidence for this is seen in PD-1-null mice who exhibit hyperactivated immune systems and autoimmune diseases. PD-1 is thus one of a growing number of immune checkpoint proteins.

PD1 Antibody [7H6] (biotin)

RF16003-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Cell-mediated immune responses are initiated by T lymphocytes that are themselves stimulated by cognate peptides bound to MHC molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC). T-cell activation is generally self-limited as activated T cells express receptors such as PD-1 (also known as PDCD-1) that mediate inhibitory signals from the APC. PD-1 can bind two different but related ligands, PDL-1 and PDL-2. Upon binding to either of these ligands, signals generated by PD-1 inhibit the activation of the immune response in the absence of "danger signals" such as LPS or other molecules associated with bacteria or other pathogens. Evidence for this is seen in PD-1-null mice who exhibit hyperactivated immune systems and autoimmune diseases. PD-1 is thus one of a growing number of immune checkpoint proteins.

PDL1 Antibody [8E12] (biotin)

RF16032-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: PD-L1 Antibody: Cell-mediated immune responses are initiated by T lymphocytes that are themselves stimulated by cognate peptides bound to MHC molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC) (1). T-cell activation is generally self-limited as activated T cells express receptors such as PD-1 (also known as PDCD-1) that mediate inhibitory signals from the APC (2). PD-1 can bind two different but related ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. PD-L1 is a B7-related protein that inhibits cell-mediated immune responses by reducing the secretion of IL-2 and IL-10 from memory T cells (3). This suggests that PD-L1 may be useful in reducing allogenic CD4+ memory T-cell responses to endothelial cells, thereby reducing the likelihood of host immune responses to allografts. PD-L1 also functions as an immune checkpoint protein, and multiple anti-PD-L1 antibodies are currently in phase II and III clinical trials, with one antibody already approved for the treatment of cancer (4).

PDL1 Antibody [8E12] (biotin)

RF16032-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: PD-L1 Antibody: Cell-mediated immune responses are initiated by T lymphocytes that are themselves stimulated by cognate peptides bound to MHC molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC) (1). T-cell activation is generally self-limited as activated T cells express receptors such as PD-1 (also known as PDCD-1) that mediate inhibitory signals from the APC (2). PD-1 can bind two different but related ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. PD-L1 is a B7-related protein that inhibits cell-mediated immune responses by reducing the secretion of IL-2 and IL-10 from memory T cells (3). This suggests that PD-L1 may be useful in reducing allogenic CD4+ memory T-cell responses to endothelial cells, thereby reducing the likelihood of host immune responses to allografts. PD-L1 also functions as an immune checkpoint protein, and multiple anti-PD-L1 antibodies are currently in phase II and III clinical trials, with one antibody already approved for the treatment of cancer (4).

TIGIT Antibody [10B1] (biotin)

RF16058-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: TIGIT Antibody: The T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) is a member of the PVR (poliovirus receptor) family of immunoglobin proteins. It is expressed on several classes of T cells including follicular B helper T cells (TFH). TIGIT has been shown to bind PVR with high affinity; this binding is thought to assist interactions between TFH and dendritic cells to regulate T cell dependent B cell responses (1). Similar to other immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1, TIGIT is upregulated on exhausted T cells in chronic viral infections and cancer. Blockade of both TIGIT and PD-1 pathways leads to tumor rejection in mice suggesting that it may be of therapeutic use against cancer (2).

TIGIT Antibody [10B1] (biotin)

RF16058-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: TIGIT Antibody: The T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) is a member of the PVR (poliovirus receptor) family of immunoglobin proteins. It is expressed on several classes of T cells including follicular B helper T cells (TFH). TIGIT has been shown to bind PVR with high affinity; this binding is thought to assist interactions between TFH and dendritic cells to regulate T cell dependent B cell responses (1). Similar to other immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1, TIGIT is upregulated on exhausted T cells in chronic viral infections and cancer. Blockade of both TIGIT and PD-1 pathways leads to tumor rejection in mice suggesting that it may be of therapeutic use against cancer (2).

TIM3 Antibody [10C10] (biotin)

RF16103-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: The immune checkpoint protein TIM3 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and TIM family of proteins that was initially identified as a specific marker of fully differentiated IFN-γ producing CD4 T helper 1 (Th1) and CD8 cytotoxic cells. It is a Th1-specific cell surface protein that regulates macrophage activation and negatively regulates Th1-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses, and is also highly expressed on regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (1). TIM3 and PD-1 are co-expressed on most CD4 and CD8 T cells infiltrating solid tumors or in hematologic malignancy in mice; blocking TIM3 in conjugation with a PD-1 blockade increases the functionality of exhausted T cells and synergizes with to inhibit tumor growth (2,3).

TIM3 Antibody [10C10] (biotin)

RF16103-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: The immune checkpoint protein TIM3 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and TIM family of proteins that was initially identified as a specific marker of fully differentiated IFN-γ producing CD4 T helper 1 (Th1) and CD8 cytotoxic cells. It is a Th1-specific cell surface protein that regulates macrophage activation and negatively regulates Th1-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses, and is also highly expressed on regulatory T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (1). TIM3 and PD-1 are co-expressed on most CD4 and CD8 T cells infiltrating solid tumors or in hematologic malignancy in mice; blocking TIM3 in conjugation with a PD-1 blockade increases the functionality of exhausted T cells and synergizes with to inhibit tumor growth (2,3).

Phosphodiesterase 2A, CGMP Stimulated (PDE2A) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx315909
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

cGMP Antibody

3568-100
EUR 354

cGMP Antibody

3568-30T
EUR 146

cGMP antibody

20R-1648 100 ul
EUR 673
Description: Rabbit polyclonal cGMP antibody

cGMP antibody

20-CR62 1000 tests
EUR 398
Description: Rabbit polyclonal cGMP antibody

cGMP antibody

20-CR62S 1000 tests
EUR 133
Description: Rabbit polyclonal cGMP antibody

cGMP antibody

70R-11916 100 ul
EUR 460
Description: Rabbit polyclonal cGMP antibody

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody (biotin)

3525-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody (biotin)

3525-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope Antibody (biotin)

3531-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Envelope protein is a small polypeptide that contains at least one alpha-helical transmembrane domain. It involves in several aspects of the virus's life cycle, such as assembly, budding, envelope formation, and pathogenesis. E protein has membrane permeabilizing activity, which provides a possible rationale to inhibit in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic coronavirus E proteins, and also viral replication (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Envelope Antibody (biotin)

3531-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Envelope protein is a small polypeptide that contains at least one alpha-helical transmembrane domain. It involves in several aspects of the virus's life cycle, such as assembly, budding, envelope formation, and pathogenesis. E protein has membrane permeabilizing activity, which provides a possible rationale to inhibit in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic coronavirus E proteins, and also viral replication (3).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Antibody (biotin)

9099-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of coronavirus. It is also one of the major structural proteins and is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNA, packaging of the encapsidated genome into virions (3), and interference with cell cycle processes of host cells (4). Moreover, in many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, the N protein has high immunogenic activity and is abundantly expressed during infection (5). It can be detected in various patient samples including nasopharyngeal aspirate, urine, and fecal. Both S and N proteins may be potential antigens for serodiagnosis of COVID-19, just as many diagnostic methods have been developed for diagnosing SARS based on S and/or N proteins (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Antibody (biotin)

9099-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of coronavirus. It is also one of the major structural proteins and is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNA, packaging of the encapsidated genome into virions (3), and interference with cell cycle processes of host cells (4). Moreover, in many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, the N protein has high immunogenic activity and is abundantly expressed during infection (5). It can be detected in various patient samples including nasopharyngeal aspirate, urine, and fecal. Both S and N proteins may be potential antigens for serodiagnosis of COVID-19, just as many diagnostic methods have been developed for diagnosing SARS based on S and/or N proteins (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Antibody (biotin)

9103-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of coronavirus. It is also one of the major structural proteins and is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNA, packaging of the encapsidated genome into virions (3), and interference with cell cycle processes of host cells (4). Moreover, in many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, the N protein has high immunogenic activity and is abundantly expressed during infection (5). It can be detected in various patient samples including nasopharyngeal aspirate, urine, and fecal. Both S and N proteins may be potential antigens for serodiagnosis of COVID-19, just as many diagnostic methods have been developed for diagnosing SARS based on S and/or N proteins (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Nucleocapsid Antibody (biotin)

9103-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of coronavirus. It is also one of the major structural proteins and is involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNA, packaging of the encapsidated genome into virions (3), and interference with cell cycle processes of host cells (4). Moreover, in many coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV, the N protein has high immunogenic activity and is abundantly expressed during infection (5). It can be detected in various patient samples including nasopharyngeal aspirate, urine, and fecal. Both S and N proteins may be potential antigens for serodiagnosis of COVID-19, just as many diagnostic methods have been developed for diagnosing SARS based on S and/or N proteins (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Membrane Antibody (biotin)

9157-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2).The membrane (M) protein or matrix protein is the most abundant structural protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope (3). It is an integral membrane protein involved in the budding of the viral particles and interacts with S (Spike) protein. It involves in organization of the nucleoprotein inside, which includes many copies of the N (nucleocapsid) protein bound to the genomic RNA. The M protein holds dominant cellular immunogenicity and has been determined as a protective antigen in humoral responses, which suggests it would serve as a potential target in vaccine design (4).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Membrane Antibody (biotin)

9157-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (1). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh member of the enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that are able to infect humans. The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like other coronaviruses, encodes for multiple structural and nonstructural proteins. The structural proteins include spike protein (S), envelope protein (E), membrane glycoprotein (M), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), and the nonstructural proteins include open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab), ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF8, and ORF10 (2).The membrane (M) protein or matrix protein is the most abundant structural protein and defines the shape of the viral envelope (3). It is an integral membrane protein involved in the budding of the viral particles and interacts with S (Spike) protein. It involves in organization of the nucleoprotein inside, which includes many copies of the N (nucleocapsid) protein bound to the genomic RNA. The M protein holds dominant cellular immunogenicity and has been determined as a protective antigen in humoral responses, which suggests it would serve as a potential target in vaccine design (4).

Anti-cGMP Antibody

A1285-50
EUR 398

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 Antibody (biotin)

9083-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S1 Antibody (biotin)

9083-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD Antibody (biotin)

9087-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike RBD Antibody (biotin)

9087-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody (biotin)

9091-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike 681P Antibody (biotin)

9091-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 Antibody (biotin)

9123-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 191.42
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike S2 Antibody (biotin)

9123-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 495.22
Description: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).

HIV-1 p24 Antibody [8G9] (biotin)

PM-6335-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 171.82
Description: HIV-1 p24 Monoclonal Antibody: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle consists of an envelope, a core and the region between the two termed matrix (1). The HIV-1 Gag protein is a late structural protein that contains four proteins: matrix (p17), capsid (p24), nucleocapsid (p7) and the p6 protein (2). The p24 constitutes the major core component of the virus and shows high degree of sequence conservation among HIV isolates. The Gag p24 has been used as an integral part of multicomponent HIV-1 vaccines (3).

HIV-1 p24 Antibody [8G9] (biotin)

PM-6335-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 436.42
Description: HIV-1 p24 Monoclonal Antibody: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle consists of an envelope, a core and the region between the two termed matrix (1). The HIV-1 Gag protein is a late structural protein that contains four proteins: matrix (p17), capsid (p24), nucleocapsid (p7) and the p6 protein (2). The p24 constitutes the major core component of the virus and shows high degree of sequence conservation among HIV isolates. The Gag p24 has been used as an integral part of multicomponent HIV-1 vaccines (3).

HIV-1 p24 Antibody [7F4] (biotin)

PM-6585-biotin-002mg 0.02 mg
EUR 171.82
Description: HIV-1 p24 Monoclonal Antibody: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle consists of an envelope, a core and the region between the two termed matrix (1). The HIV-1 Gag protein is a late structural protein that contains four proteins: matrix (p17), capsid (p24), nucleocapsid (p7) and the p6 protein (2). The p24 constitutes the major core component of the virus and shows high degree of sequence conservation among HIV isolates. The Gag p24 has been used as an integral part of multicomponent HIV-1 vaccines (3).

HIV-1 p24 Antibody [7F4] (biotin)

PM-6585-biotin-01mg 0.1 mg
EUR 436.42
Description: HIV-1 p24 Monoclonal Antibody: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle consists of an envelope, a core and the region between the two termed matrix (1). The HIV-1 Gag protein is a late structural protein that contains four proteins: matrix (p17), capsid (p24), nucleocapsid (p7) and the p6 protein (2). The p24 constitutes the major core component of the virus and shows high degree of sequence conservation among HIV isolates. The Gag p24 has been used as an integral part of multicomponent HIV-1 vaccines (3).

UQCRQ Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA03855D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against UQCRQ. Recognizes UQCRQ from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

KAT7 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA03865D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against KAT7. Recognizes KAT7 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

TUBB3 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA03874D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against TUBB3. Recognizes TUBB3 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

TUBB3 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA03879D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against TUBB3. Recognizes TUBB3 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

TMEM109 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA03899D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against TMEM109. Recognizes TMEM109 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

DNAJB1 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA03934D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against DNAJB1. Recognizes DNAJB1 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

virD2 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA03944D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against virD2. Recognizes virD2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

RELA Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA03987D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against RELA. Recognizes RELA from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

AFG3L2 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04005D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against AFG3L2. Recognizes AFG3L2 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

SNX22 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04059D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against SNX22. Recognizes SNX22 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

GPR161 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04114D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against GPR161. Recognizes GPR161 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

SARS Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04145D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against SARS. Recognizes SARS from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

PFN1 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04154D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against PFN1. Recognizes PFN1 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

TUBA1B Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04189D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against TUBA1B. Recognizes TUBA1B from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

SLC6A7 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04209D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against SLC6A7. Recognizes SLC6A7 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

RPS14 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04255D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against RPS14. Recognizes RPS14 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

HNRNPH1 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04264D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against HNRNPH1. Recognizes HNRNPH1 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

TALDO1 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04275D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against TALDO1. Recognizes TALDO1 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

AKAP17A Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04299D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against AKAP17A. Recognizes AKAP17A from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

PTDSS1 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04305D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against PTDSS1. Recognizes PTDSS1 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

RAC1 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04329D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against RAC1. Recognizes RAC1 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA

ABL1 Antibody, Biotin conjugated

1-CSB-PA04355D0Rb
  • EUR 317.00
  • EUR 335.00
  • 100ug
  • 50ug
Description: A polyclonal antibody against ABL1. Recognizes ABL1 from Human. This antibody is Biotin conjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA